Greek Grammar & Syntax


Here's what you will find on this page:

Beginning Greek
Intermediate Greek
Advanced Greek
Using New Testament Greek in Ministry
Specialty Studies: General
Specialty Studies: Verbal Aspect
Handouts Online
Commentaries Based on the Greek Text
Classical Greek
Modern Greek


Beginning Greek

Learn to Read New Testament Greek
This is my Greek Grammar. It is divided into 26 lessons, most of which are arranged according to the following pattern: a presentation of the grammatical concepts and forms to be learned, divided into manageable units; a list of essential vocabulary words to be mastered; and exercises based on the material covered in the lesson. It is characterized by moving from most simple to more complex grammatical issues. There are also a number of helpful resources that have been developed to go along with my book, which you can check out here.
Bluedorn's Homeschool Greek (Vol. 1)
This is a self-contained Greek course written by Harvey Bluedorn for students ages thirteen and up. The Volume I course, “Mostly Nouns and Such,” consists of a 310-page, plastic comb-bound textbook, a 65-page Greek reader, vocabulary cards, and three audio tapes. This grammar does not begin with the alphabet and pronunciation.
Cambridge New Testament Greek Grammar
This application contains ten units aimed at helping you get off to a flying start with New Testament Greek. It is designed for use with Jeremy Duff's Elemensts of NT Greek.
Croy's A Primer of Biblical Greek Biblical Greek Online Course: Supplement
These are supplementary notes keyed to Croy's introductory Greek grammar provided by the University of Oklahoma.
Croy's A Primer of Biblical Greek Supplementary Material
This 332 page supplementary packet contains cumulative vocabulary lists, practice and review exercises, quizzes for each lesson, summaries of lessons, answer keys, and "fun with Greek" items. 
Croy's Vocabulary Charts
Find groupings of Greek vocabulary keyed to Croy's A Primer of Biblical Greek here. 
GlossaHouse Language Resources
This publishing house, created by T. Michael W. Halcomb and Fredrick J. Long, has produced a whole curriculum of Greek learning resources called AGROS (Accessible Greek Resources & Online Studies). Their desire is to develop cutting edge language learning resources.
Green's Brief Introduction to New Testament Greek
This is a primer for New Testament Greek, containing an outline of etymology and syntax and exercises and vocabulary. It serves as a compliment to the author's Handbook to the Grammar of the Greek Testament.
Highlighting Greek Sentences
This document is a great introduction to basic morphological analysis of simple Greek sentences. It could be profitably used when introducing the case system and the second declension. It was developed by the folks at Friendly Avenue Baptist Church.
Hudson's Teach Yourself New Testament Greek
D. F. Hudson's introductory Greek grammar has 28 lessons, which include English-to-Greek and Greek-to-English excersies with answer key.
Keating's Learning New Testament Greek for English Readers
Corey Keating provides this helpful online beginning Greek grammar. Be sure to read his "Preparing to Learn Elementary Greek" essay here and his "Recommendations for Learning New Testament Greek" essay here.
Moulton's A Grammar of New Testament Greek Vol. 1 and Vol. 2
James Moulton's beginning Greek grammar is available free, in multiple formats, at Internet Archive.
Mounce's Basics of Biblical Greek: Grammar
Elsewhere I've written, "Mounce's beginning grammar remains perhaps the most widely used introductory textbook of New Testament Greek. Speaking as an author of a beginning Greek textbook, I am glad that Mounce's grammar has had the recognition it so richly deserves and offer my best wishes for its continuance, since the book is a great service to students everywhere. No matter which beginning textbook you used, you will need to own this grammar as well." There is also a workbook that has been developed for use with it.
Nifty Greek Handouts
The Department of Classics at the University of Chicago has provided a number of helpful resources for the struggling Greek student. The handouts cover diacritical marks, verb morphology, the definite article, and much much more.
Palmer's Hellenistic Greek
This is a very helpful online Greek grammar, consisting of 29 lessons. Lessons are carefully explained and reinforced with examples. The grammar includes a lexicon and learning games. Teachers who use it will find its Smartboard compatibility a helpful resource in the classroom.  
Pappas' Bible Greek: Basics Grammar of the Greek New Testament
This is the textbook used with John Pappas' Bible Greek VPOD course. It starts with present active indicative verbs, followed by second declension nouns. From there it moves to other areas of Greek grammar.  
PorterGreek's Grammar Comparison
This chart compares eight different introductory Greek grammars in the areas of price, CD/Online support, text, and approach.
Porter, Reed, and O'Donnell's Fundamentals of New Testament Greek
You can find chapter 1 of Fundamentals of New Testament Greek here. It covers the alphabet, accents, and punctuation. The corresponding workbook chapter is available here. You can find chapter 2 here. It covers second declension nouns and first-second declension adjectives. The corresponding workbook chapter is available here.
You can also find various handouts of their charts:
Fundamentals of New Testament Greek Adjective Charts
Fundamentals of New Testament Greek Noun Charts
Fundamentals of New Testament Greek Participle Charts
Fundamentals of New Testament Greek Pronoun Charts
Fundamentals of New Testament Greek Verb Charts
Robert Plummer's Daily Dose of Greek  
Robert Plummer's website is geared to help students learn Greek "from scratch" or review the fundamentals. There are 2-minute "Daily Dose" videos posted 5 days per week where Plummer discusses a single Greek verse. [When you click on the link, scroll down to navigate the options.]
Rodney Decker's Introduction to Verbs
In this .pdf, Rodney Decker provides a supplement to chapter 15 of William Mounce's Biblical Greek Grammar. The main changes involved pertain to Decker's understanding of Verbal Aspect and Aktionsart. 
Rodney A. Whitacre's "Basic Hellenistic Greek Morphology"
This handout consists of a review of Greek Morphology, including charts of the most important forms and brief explanations. He also has a helpful one page summary, as well as a review of the third declension and a few other resources.
Rollinson's Online Greek Textbook
This is a 60+ chapter introductory Greek grammar (still in progress) by Shirley J. Rollinson, available for free online and in .pdf.  
Rydberg-Cox's Overview of Greek Syntax
Jeffrey A. Rydberg-Cox provides this resource at the Perseus site, which (briefly) covers elements of Greek syntax that students encounter in their first and second year Greek courses. Each section contains an example that is linked (1) to the texts in the Perseus digital library and (2) to Smyth’s Greek Grammar. Users can change certain settings to best suite their needs.
Simcox's The Language of the New Testament
This is an introductory Greek grammar by William Henry Simcox. 
Stedman's The Greek's Had a Word For It
This is the tenth chapter in one of Ray Stedman's resources in which he gives an overview of the Greek language. He concentrates on verbs, prepositions, and word studies.
Strong's Greek in a Nutshell
This is a 28 page Greek grammar, with notes and excercises, by James Strong. 
The Little Greek
A frequent poster on B-Greek forum, Jonathan Robie, provides this Greek website on learning Greek and helpful resources.  His online Greek textbook (in progress) is found here.  
Wermuth's Greekbook
Robert Wermuth uses a systemic-relational approach for his introductory Greek grammar. 

Intermediate Greek

Black's It's Still Greek to Me
In the preface I've written, "What I have tried to do--and I think I have done--in It's Still Greek to Me is to write a guide to grammar that does more than simply rehash the same litany of 'rules' and 'principles' that have been talked about, written about, argued about, and sweated over for centuries. I have tried to organize the book in a manner geared to the way people actually use the language."
Black's Linguistics for Students of New Testament Greek
This grammar concentrates on a linguistic approach to New Testament Greek and draws readers' attention to literary, grammatical, and linguistic concerns throughout.
Decker's Koine Greek Reader
Elsewhere I've written, "Having taught Greek for 34 years I can say with conviction that nothing is more important to the mastery of New Testament Greek than keeping our students in the text. Decker's book is simply the best reader available today. The readings are all engaging, and the notes are both accurate and helpful. Decker will stretch your students without breaking them. The book is also very user-friendly for the independent learner."
Duckwitz's Reading the Gospel of St. John in Greek
Richard on writes: "More than any text book, I accredit this book to my current ability to read Greek. If one were to approach this book scholarly, they will find that their acquisition of Biblical and Classical Greek will come (slowly but surely) and they will, at the same time, be able to read the Gospel of John in it's original text. This version of John comes with all the linguistic aids one would need to learn to read, at least at an introductory level, the Gospel of John."
Funk's Beginning-Intermediate Grammar of Hellenistic Greek
This three-volume grammar is available in HTML at iBiblio's website. This is a helpful resource, however the paradigms remain incomplete.
Funk's A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature
Over at Amazon, Dan Wallace  writes: "BDF is still the standard Greek grammar of the New Testament even after four decades. It is in the process of being revised (by a revision committee of eight members), but the revision will take several more years to complete. We felt it needed revision because BDF presupposes that the average reader has had much exposure to classical Greek prior to working in the New Testament. This is part of the reason that BDF is so hard to use: most NT students have not had exposure to classical Greek nowadays. Another reason is its cryptic nature, Teutonic abbreviations, and omission of 'normal' grammar. Nevertheless, even with these shortcomings, every responsible exegete of the New Testament must own a copy of this goldmine of information."
Wallace's Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics
Elsewhere I've written, "Wallace's intermediate grammar is a tour de force. It is absolutely impossible to describe the profundity of this book. I prefer to recommend it to you and then let you discover its treasures. The pedagogical implications, however, are such that I cannot agree to them without compromising what is dearest to me as a teacher -- simplicity. It would do good service if one day the book could be rewritten and placed on a slightly lower shelf. Oh wait -- this has already been done!"
Zerwick's Biblical Greek
Elsewhere I've written, "When I was in seminary I was introduced to this book and lived with it night and day. Despite its recklessly ambitious preface the book largely accomplishes what it sets out to do: introduce the reader to all the categories of New Testament Greek grammar in an understandable way. It really is a first-rate piece of work." Interested persons can preview the book here as well.

Advanced Greek

Burton's Syntax of the Moods and Tenses in New Testament Greek
This work is available in multiple formats at Internet Archive. It concentrates on the task of translating the Greek New Testament into English forms of thought and expression, with special attention devoted to the function of verbs.

Deismann's A Philology of the Greek Bible
This book contains the Adolf Deissmann Lectures delivered to the Cambridge summer school of the Free churches in July and August 1907. The topics include (1) the Greek Bible as a compact unity; (2) the new linguistic records; (3) the problem of "Biblical" Greek; (4) Septuagint philology; and (5) New Testament philology.
Robertson's Gigantic Greek Grammar
Elsewhere I've written, "I seldom felt so pitifully incompetent as when I first picked up this book. It almost counts as a 'mental autobiography.' Robertson tried to show the effect, upon a growing new science, of the profound transformation that modern linguistics had brought in the way scholars approached the Greek of the New Testament. Most modern teachers of Greek give the book faint praise, then promptly ignore it. In my opinion, that is a huge mistake. I require the book in my Advanced Greek Grammar course, but even intermediate level students who are willing to work will benefit from it." The link above will give you access to the book in multiple electronic formats. This link will take you to a digitized PDF that is fully searchable using English letters.
Textkit: Greek and Latin Learning Tools
"Textkit began in late 2001 as a project to develop free of charge downloads of Greek and Latin grammars, readers and answer keys. We offer a large library of over 180 of the very best Greek and Latin textkbooks on our Ancient Greek and Latin Learning pages. Since that time we have distributed millions of PDF textbook free of charge world-wide. Our grammars, readers and keys are public domain textkbooks which Textkit has converted."
Winer's Treatise on the Grammar of New Testament Greek
This is G. B. Winer's third edition (1882), translated by W. F. Moulton.  The book totals over 800+ pages.

Using New Testament Greek in Ministry

Allen, Jason K., interview with Ray Van Neste: "The Pastor and the Biblical Languages"
In this podcast, Jason K. Allen, president of Widwestern Seminary, interviews Dr. Ray Van Neste and discusses topics such as why pastors should study the biblical languages, and how to keep their knowledge of the languages fresh.
Black's Using New Testament Greek in Ministry
This book lives up to its subtitle ("A Practical Guide for Students and Pastors"). I provide five chapters covering New Testament Greek and the task of exegesis. Those who are interested can also preview the book here.  
DeRouchie's "The Profit of Employing the Biblical Languages"
Jason DeRouchie's essay, "The Profit of Employing the Biblical Languages: Scriptural and Historical Reflections," appears in the Themelios journal (vol. 37:1 [Apr 2012]).
Hafemann on Biblical Languages and Preaching
Scott Hafemann was posed this question by the Southern Baptist Theological Journal: "Is it genuinely important to use the biblical languages in preaching, especially since there are many excellent commentaries and pastors will never attain the expertise of scholars?" His answer will definitely interest you, and encourage you in your studies of New Testament Greek.
"How and Why Pastors Should Study the Biblical Languages," by Zach Vickery
Vickery gives an argument for why pastors ought to study the Bible in the original languages, and then gives some basic advice regarding how to do that.
McFadden's "Should I Learn Hebrew and Greek or Is Bible Software Enough?"
McFadden argues that having Bible software is not a replacement for learning the biblical languages: "You can’t use a tool for a task you don’t really understand. Language tools are no different. If you don’t know the biblical languages, then the tools available in Bible software will be largely useless to you—or worse, they will lead you into interpretive errors."
Rodney A. Whitacre's "Resources for Reading Greek: A Review Article"
Dr. Whitacre gives some helpful information on resources that can help you to become a better student of Greek. He discusses helps for vocabulary and parsing, as well as Readers' New Testaments and workbooks.
Savage's Talk on Using New Testament Greek in Ministry
The following information was presented during an informal talk with Tim Savage in March 1999. These paragraphs are the main points of that talk, reconstructed from Corey Keating's notes.
Starner's "7 Reasons to Study Biblical Hebrew and Biblical Greek"
Dr. Rob Starner gives seven reasons why people should consider investing the time and energy into learning the biblical languages.
Whitacre, Rodney. Elements of Fluency in Reading Greek
Rodney Whitacre lists different proficiencies that students of New Testament Greek need in order to attain a level of fluency in the language.
Windham's New Testament Greek for Preachers and Teachers
Elsewhere I've written, "What a pleasant surprise when I first laid eyes on this book! It covers six different areas of reading one's Greek New Testament, including morphology and the Greek cases. Why it has not attracted more attention is beyond me. I feel it is one of the most underrated books of our generation, and I'd dearly like to see it read by every student of New Testament Greek."

Specialty Studies: General

Battle's The Present Indicative in New Testament Exegesis
This is John A. Battle's Th.D. dissertation (.pdf) concerning the aspect of the present in New Testament Greek.
Boyer's A Classification of Imperatives: A Statistical Study
James L. Boyer's article appeared in the Grace Theological Journal (1988). 
Boyer's Relative Clauses in the Greek New Testament: A Statistical Study
James L. Boyer's article appeared in the Grace Theological Journal (1987). 
Boyer's Second Class Conditions in New Testament Greek
James L. Boyer's article appeared in the Grace Theological Journal (1982). 
Budd's Prepositions and Preverbs in Hellenistic Greek
This is the abstract and table of contents for Noella Budd's B.A. thesis submitted to the Dept. of Linguitics at the University of Sydney. Using a corpus-linguistic approach, she traces the history of usage of a group of words (‘P-words’) that were adverbial particles in Proto-Indo-European and became in Greek, as in many other IE languages, both prepositions and verbal prefixes. It adopts a corpus-linguistic approach.
Carl Johnson's A Discourse Analysis of the Periphrastic Imperfect in the Greek New Testament Writings of Luke
This is a .pdf copy of Carl Johnson's PhD dissertation at The University of Texas at Arlington (2010) under Jerold Edmondson. Johnson suggests that the periphrastic imperfect occurs only in narrative sections, that the number of periphrastic imperfects has been over reported, that the periphrastic imperfect is a more marked form of the verb, and a number of other fascinated proposals.
Burk's Articular Infinitives in the Greek of the New Testament
Denny Burk answers the question "What does the article contribute to the total linguistic meaning of the infinitive in the Greek of the New Testament?" This book uses modern linguistics to address the question.
Cline's The Middle Voice in the New Testament
This is George G. Cline's Th.M. dissertation (.pdf) on the middle voice.  
Conrad's New Observations on Voice
This is a 21-page, single-spaced discussion on deponency and voice in Greek. In his introduction, Carl Conrad writes: "In particular I believe that the meanings conveyed by the morphoparadigms for voice depend to a great extent upon understanding the distinctive force of the middle voice, that the passive sense is not inherent in the verb form but determined by usage in context, and that the conception of deponency is fundamentally wrong-headed and detrimental to understanding the phenomenon of 'voice' in ancient Greek."
Elliot's Conditional Sentences in the New Testament
This is William E. Elliot's Th.D. dissertation (.pdf) provides a historical analysis of different conditional constructions in New Testament Greek and an examination of each different class.  
Good's "The Trinity and Prepositions"
Robert Good discusses different prepositions used in referring to the relationship among the members of the Trinity, with special attention on εἰς, ἐν, πρός, and παρά. 
Greenlee's "New Testament Circumstantial Participles"
J. Harold Greenlee's article appeared in the Journal of Translation. Participles in the Greek NT have a great variety of meanings or functions. One important meaning is to express a circumstance: the aorist tense expressing a circumstance prior to the action of the leading verb; the present tense, a circumstance concurrent to or occasionally subsequent to that of the leading verb. Unfortunately, various grammars fail to distinguish the circumstantial function from other functions. English versions of the NT likewise often render participles incorrectly. The present article seeks to clarify these distinctions and to enable the reader of the Greek NT to determine the function of the participles he encounters.
Heine's Synonymik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch
Heine's work, similar to Trench's work, investigates the various synonyms in the Greek New Testament. The work was published in 1898. Robertson, comparing the volume to Trench's work, writes, "Heine . . . is more comprehensive and equally able." 
Lovelady's "Infinitive Clause Syntax in the Gospels"
Edgar J. Lovelady uses a tagmemic analysis of infinitives in this Th.M. thesis submitted to Grace Theological Seminary (1976).
Kirk's Word Order and Information Structure in New Testament Greek
This is Allison Kirk's Dissertation examining the word order variation in the Koine Greek of the New Testament. 
Nelte's Greek Prepositions and Their Use in the New Testament
Frank Nelte uses Bullinger's Companion Bible, Appendix 104, and adapts it to make this overview of Greek prepositions. 
Picirilli's Time and Order in Participles in Mark and Luke
Picirilli takes Porter's thesis that circumstantial participles precede the verb, while contemporaneous participles are typically subsequent to the head verb. Picirilli proceeds to offer a new solution.
Porter's "Did Jesus Ever Teach in Greek?"
This article, written by Stanley E. Porter, was published in Tyndale Bulletin (1993). In it he discusses Jesus' capacity to use Greek in his teaching ministry and the likelihood that he did so.  
Porter's Time and Order in Participles in Mark and Luke: A Response to Robert Picirilli
In this journal article published by the Bulletin for Biblical Research, Porter responds to Robert Picirilli's article "Time and Order in Circumstantial Participles of Mark and Luke" (Bulletin for Biblical Research 17.2, 2007, pp. 241-59). Porter notes that though he agrees in many areas with Picirilli, there are a number of "significant problems worth noting."
Runge's Article on Porter's Use of Contrastive Substitution
In this blog post, Runge gives us a brief history of his struggle with Stan Porter's and his application of Systemic Functional Linguistics to New Testament Greek. After detailing the history of the debate, Runge provides an except of his forthcoming paper as well as a link to the completed work.
Schuyler Signor's The Third Person Imperative in the Greek New Testament
Schuyler Signor's MA Thesis (1999) at Abilene Christian University demonstrates that the third person imperative in the Greek New Testament  adds emphasis that would not otherwise be present by an alternative means of expression. This emphasis is for the immediately audience and stresses who is responsible for executing the command or what is to be done.
Sharp's Remarks on the Definite Article
This is a copy of the Granville Sharp's third edition, published in 1803. Google Books allows viewing online, downloading, and searching with some texts.   
Smith's The Development of Style
Craig Smith's essay explores the development of literary style in Greek writing and how understanding it affects New Testament interpretation.
Smyth's Greek Grammar for Colleges
Herbert Weir Smyth's Greek Grammar for Colleges is available at this site in pdf format. This volume is the 1920 version. There is a second edition that is still in print and under copyright protection (the 1956). If you are interested learning more about this Grammar, the B-Greek Forum has an ongoing discussion about it here.
Stagg's The Abused Aorist
In this Journal of Biblical Literature article, Frank Stagg seeks to root out the continued abuse of the aorist tense. He claims that many popular scholars of the day have built a theology of the aorist. This theology centered around the idea that the aorist communicates "point action."
Thomason's Prepositional Systems in Biblical Greek, Gothic, Classical Armenian, and Old Church Slavic
This is Olga D. Thomason's Ph.D. dissertation submitted to The University of Georgia. This study investigates the systems of prepositions in Biblical Greek, Gothic, Classical Armenian and Old Church Slavic based on data collected from the New Testament text of the canonical Gospels in each language. The first part of the study focuses on the inventory of prepositions in each of the languages mentioned. It provides an exhaustive overview of the prepositional systems examining the division of semantic space in them. The second part of this investigation is a comparative study of the overall systems of prepositions in all four languages. It observes similarities and differences between prepositional systems examined in the first part.
Trench's Synonyms of the N. T.
Richard Chenevix Trench produced a text on the similarities and differences between words that are synonyms within the New Testament. This text is an outworking of a lecture he delivered at King's College. The second revised edition (which is available for free online) is from 1854.
Ulrich Petersen's Relative Clauses in Koine Greek: A Role and Reference Grammar Perspective
In this study, Petersen explores the relative clause in Greek. The following are matters under consideration: "Why is the relative pronoun almost always clause-initial? Does Greek exhibit headless relative clauses? What about prenominal relative clauses? And the continuative relative clauses – how can they be analyzed syntactically, given that they are neither restrictive nor appositional? What about non-restrictive relative clauses in general, both appositional and continuative – can anything be said about their syntactic properties, especially as regards the way in which they relate to other clauses? Does Role and Reference Grammar (RRG) have anything to offer in analyzing and explaining them? Can RRG shed some light on their syntax?"
Walker's Key to the Classical Pronunciation of Greek, Latin, and Scripture Proper Names
This book actually has one of those super-long titles expected from publications from a different era. The one above is abbreviated. Readers will benefit most from his discussion of phonological rules for pronunciation.

Specialty Studies: Verbal Aspect

Introductions to Verbal Aspect

Naselli's "A Brief Introduction to Verbal Aspect in New Testament Greek"
This article, written by Andrew Naselli, appeared in the Detroit Baptist Seminary Journal 12 (2007): 17-28. It is the perfect starting place if you are new to the conversation about verbal aspect theory in New Testament Greek.
Picirilli's The Meaning of the Tenses in NT Greek
This is a survey by Robert Picirilli of scholarship on tense in Greek. It deals with questions surrounding the topic of verbal aspect, including the question of terminology and whether the Greek verb communicates time. This is an insightful essay about the state of the discipline on this issue up to the year 2005.
Kelley's Introduction to Verbal Aspect and Its Use in One Major Commentary
This PowerPoint is an introduction to the major issues involved in the debate over verbal aspect theory, as well as a critique of its application in Rosner and Ciampa's Pillar Commentary on 1 Corinthians.

Other Resources on Verbal Aspect

Binnick's A Bibliography of Tense, Verbal Aspect, Aktionsart, and Related Areas: 6600 Works
Robert Binnick has prepared an extensive bibliography on works pertaining to tense, verbal aspect, aktionsart, and related areas. He includes 6600 works. 4031 of the works listed are written in English, 835 in French, 742 in German, 384 in Russian, 135 in Spanish.
Campbell's Basics of Verbal Aspect in Biblical Greek
In this book, Constantine Campbell investigates the function of verbal aspect within the New Testament Greek narrative. The book includes exercises, an answer key, glossary of key concepts, an appendix covering space and time, and an index to Scripture cited. The author has also provided a five-part blog series on Zondervan's blog: Part I / Part II / Part III / Part IV / Part V.
Campbell's Verbal Aspect and Non-Indicative Verbs
This book is the application of the model developed in Constantine Campbell's first work, Verbal Aspect, the Indicative Mood, and Narrative
Campbell's Verbal Aspect, the Indicative Mood, and Narrative
Constantine Campbell investigates the function of verbal aspect within New Testament Greek narrative. He argues that the primary role of verbal aspect in narrative is to delineate and shape the various 'discourse strands' of which it is constructed, such as mainline, offline, and direct discourse.
Charles Smith's "Errant Aorist Interpreters"
Smith's article, "Errant Aorist Interpreters," published in Grace Theological Journal 2.2 (Fall 1981) 205-226, seeks to "demythologize" the aorist tense. He writes that the aorist is "the standard verbal aspect employed for naming or labeling an act or event. As such, apart from its indications of time relationships, it is exegetically insignificant.
Decker's "Poor Man's Porter"
This essay by Rodney Decker is a condensed summary of Stanley Porter's Verbal Aspect in the Greek of the New Testament
Decker's Verbal Aspect in Recent Debate: Objections to Porter's Non-Temporal View of the Verb
This paper is an adapted section of Decker's Temporal Deixis of the Greek Verb in the Gospel of Mark with Reference to Verbal Aspect, which was presented at the 2001 Eastern Region Annual Meeting of the Evangelical Theological Society.
Gentry's Aspect and the Greek Verb
Peter Gentry has prepared a handout for his class (04/01/10) on Verbal Aspect and the Greek Verb. The handout presupposes the student's familiarity with Carl Bache, Trevor Evans, Andrew Naselli, Stanley Porter, and Daniel Wallace. The handout is in .pdf format.
Kimmo Huovila's Towards a Theory of Aspectual Nesting for New Testament Greek
This is Kimmo Huovila's MA Thesis at the University of Helsinki submitted in 1999. The goals of the thesis "are to present a general theory of aspectual nesting, and to argue for specific aspectual values for the verbal stems of New Testament Greek, and to study the temporal reference of the Greek tenses in the indicative."
Michael Todd Graham's An Analysis of Recent Research on Verbal Aspect in Hellenistic Greek
In this Master of Theology thesis presented to Peter Gentry and Tomas Schreiner at Souther Baptist Theological Seminary, Michael Todd Graham surveys and synthesizes the works of the leading contributors in the field of Verbal Aspect. He offers some areas in need of further study. Finally, he addresses the pragmatical question, "Why does this matter for the study of scripture."
Mike Aubrey's The Greek Perfect and the Categorization of Tense and Aspect
Mike Aubrey has uploaded his anxiously awaited thesis to His thesis attempts to expand the theoretical and methodological basis for operators within Role and Reference Grammar for purposes of description, using the Greek perfect as a test case. 
Pennington's Aspectual Prominence in Matthew
In his paper presented at the 2006 SBL meeting in Washington, D. C., Pennington puts Porter's prominence theory for aspectual choices to test. He utilizes Porter's verbal aspect theory that differentiates between three planes of discourse – background, foreground, and frontground, and applies it to the book of Matthew. The conclusion of the paper offers suggestions for further research.
Porter's Verbal Aspect in the Greek of the New Testament
Elsewhere I've written, "This book, which suffers from gigantism, deserves a prominent place in my list because it opened an important can of worms known today as the verbal aspect debate. You mustn't expect clarity from Dr. Porter, but you must read this book. Porter impresses me as one who has his finger on the heartbeat of the problem, though I disagree with many of his conclusions."
Runge's The Verbal Aspect of the Historical Present Indicative in Narrative
Runge writes in the introduction to this article, "The primary purpose of this article is to challenge the view of the historical present (HP) usage held by those claiming that Koine Greek does not grammaticalize tense."

Handouts Online

Aschmann's New Testament Greek Charts
This fifty page document contains charts for: pronunciation, vowels and dipthongs, accents, nouns, verbs, etc.
Craig Ledbetter's Introduction to New Testament Greek Course Handout
This packet contains different charts for introductory Greek grammar.
This website hosts LSU's Greek course handouts. Look through the entire page. There are some useful handouts and PowerPoints (ex., one on how to write the Greek alphabet).
G. Brooke Lester's New Testament Greek Frequency List
Lester offers this list of Greek vocabulary based on its frequency in the New Testament.
This page is devoted to Modern Greek. It includes various handouts in .pdf format on a number of topics. 
Helma Dik's Paradigm Handouts
Helma Dik and The Department of Classics at the University of Chicago makes these handouts available online.
Philemon Zachariou's Timetable of the Greek Langauge
This is a visual aid attempting to help students understand the development of the Greek language from 2000 B.C. to A.D. 2000.  
Seventh Day Adventist Theological Seminary Study Guide for the  Greek Placement Exam
This is a study guide for SDATS, helping the assess whether students have the appropriate skills to do certain exegetical tasks in Greek exegesis courses that are offered.  
Trent Hunter's Graphical Greek
These graphic organizers are attractive and are designed to help students of New Testament Greek understand and retain the fundamentals of Greek grammar. A sample is available here. The full 24-page document costs $4.99.  

Commentaries Based on Greek Text

Baylor Handbook on the Greek New Testament
Each handbook in the series provides a reference tool explaining the syntax of the biblical text. They offer guidance for deciding between competing semantic analyses, deal with text-critical questions that have a significant bearing on how the text is understood, and address questions relating to the Greek text that are frequently overlooked or ignored by standard commentaries.
Exegetical Guide to the Greek New Testament
This commentary series deals with various syntactical details of the Greek text in a concise manner.
Heatley's The Gospel According to St. Luke
This is a Greek reader by H. R. Heatley. Notes on the text are provided in the second half of the book. 
Irons, Charles. A Syntax Guide for Readers of the Greek New Testament
This syntax guide "Provides brief explanations of intermediate and advanced syntactical features of the Greek text," "suggests translations to help the reader make sense of unusual phrases and difficult sentences," and "eliminates the need for the reader to stop and look up intermediate, advanced, or unusual grammatical features of the Greek text."
The New International Greek Testament Commentary
This is a commentary series on the Greek text of the books of the NT. While its concerns are broader than simply the original language dimension, it comments on the book from the perspective of the Greek text.

Classical Greek

Beetham's Beginning Greek with Homer
This is introductory Classical Greek grammar assumes no previous knowledge of Greek. The first six sections of the book deal with the fundamental elements of grammar that are a necessary preliminary to study. From the seventh section onwards the course proceeds through the "Odyssey", Book Five, with grammatical explanations and exercises. It provides an introduction not only to the Greek language but also to one of the great classics of world literature.
Donaldson's A Complete Greek Grammar
Published in 1862, this is an exhaustive Classical Greek grammar by John William Donaldson.  
Dramata's Beginning Greek Grammar Bibliography
Follow this link for a list of Greek grammars for beginning students.
Dramata's Intermediate Greek Grammar Bibliography
Follow this link for a list of Greek grammars for intermediate students.
Goodwin's A Greek Grammar
This edition of William W. Goodwin's introductory Classical Greek grammar was published in 1900 and is available in .pdf format online.
Mastronarde's Ancient Greek Tutorials
This site is made available by the University of California Press and offers useful tutorials on different aspects of Ancient Greek, including pronunciation, vocabulary, etc. They include drills on accentuation, verbs, and nouns.
North and Hillard's Greek Prose Composition
This classic 275 page Greek composition book has been in use throughout the world for over 100 years. The book features brief lesson overviews followed by English to Greek composition exercises. A key is also available to check your work. In the appendix the Greek student will find useful tables of verb stems, prepositions and particles. This book is suitable for both beginners and intermediate learners. The answer key to the grammar can be downloaded here.
Pharr's Homeric Greek for Beginners
This is an introductory Classical Greek grammar, by Clyde Pharr, is available in .pdf format online.
Post-Reformation Digital Library
The Post-Reformation Digital Library describes itself as "a select database of digital books relating to the development of theology and philosophy during the Reformation and Post-Reformation/Early Modern Era (late 15th-18th c.). Late medieval and patristic works printed and referenced in the early modern era are also included." Texts appear in English, French, Dutch, German, Latin, and many other languages.
Rutherford's First Greek Grammar Accidence
This is a supplement to Rutherford's work on syntax. It contains all the paradigms and charts for the grammar. 
Rutherford's First Greek Grammar Syntax
This resource is designed for those with a little to no knowledge of Greek grammar.  
Schoder and Horrigan's A Reading Course in Homeric Greek Book I
Using Homer's Odyssey in this beginning Greek grammar, daily lessons are arranged so every word, form, and rule in the day's selection is learned beforehand. The book also includes various aspects of ancient history, Greek culture, art, sculpture, architectu re, democracy, and the dawn of Western Civilization highlight humanistic values
Schoder and Horrigan's A Reading Course in Homeric Greek Book II
Using Homer's Iliad, each lesson is a passage consisting of ten to twenty-five lines of text. Each lesson also includes a memorization list of frequently found words, thematic commentary in shaded boxes, and expanded and revised grammatical notes. The text also includes a Greek-English vocabulary list, an appendix of a summary of grammar, and an appendix on reading Homer rhythmically.
S. C. Woodhouse's English-Greek Dictionary
The University of Chicago Library makes this classical Greek dictionary available online here. Enter the English word, press enter, and be directed to a digital image of Woodhouse's text.  
Sidgwick's A First Greek Writer
Arthur Sidgwick’s A First Greek Writer is a beginning level Greek composition book. His book is based on the pedagogical principle that if you want to learn a language, you have to incoporate more of the senses than just sight. In his book, he believes writing increases a student's understanding and acquistition of the Greek language.
Sidgwick's Introduction to Greek Prose Composition
Arthur Sidgwick concentrates on accidence and syntax in the composition grammar, while giving some attention to idioms in Classical Greek. 
Sidgwick's Key to A First Greek Writer
This is the answer key Arthur Sidgwick's A First Greek Writer.  
Sidgwick's Lectures on Greek Prose Composition
This book and the lectures found therein are designed to intermediate and advanced students of Classical Greek. Each lecture begins with a discussion from a work in Classical Greek.
Simonson's A Greek Grammar: Syntax
This is an intermediate Classical Greek grammar by Gustave Simonson.  
Smyth's A Greek Grammar for Colleges
Herbert Weir Smyth's work (1920) is a concise Greek grammar covering the Homeric epics up to the beginning of the Hellenistic period. Less attention is given to Koine Greek. The main link above is to the book's location at Internet Archive's website since it can be downloaded in multiple formats there (including .pdf and Kindle). It is also available at  TextKit here and Google Books here.
Veitch's Greek Verbs: Irregular and Defective
This is a Classical Greek dictionary for verbs available on Internet Archive in a number of formats.  
Wecklein's The Prometheus Bound of Aeschylus
This is N. Wecklein's Classical Greek reader, translated by F. D. Allen, with line notes and other helps.  
White's The First Greek Book
This classic introductory Classical Greek grammar contains 80 lessons and the appendix lists rules of syntax, paradigms, principal parts of important verbs and vocabulary.

For links to Classical Greek texts so that you can practice your reading, see the "Classical Greek" section of our "Greek Reading Room" page.


Modern Greek

BBC's Greek Language Page
This resource incorporates the Greek language with its culture.
CoolJugator's Modern Greek
This is a simple Modern Greek verb conjugator, which can currently conjugate 1,080 verbs. You have to type in the first person present form of the verb to conjugate it in Greek.
Donaldson's Modern Greek Grammar
Published in 1852 making it dated, this is a concise Modern Greek grammar.
Duolingo Modern Greek
Duolingo is a free online program for language learning. Similar to Rosetta Stone, it teaches by immersion.
Filoglossia is a series of four multimedia CD-ROMs for learning Modern Greek, addressed to beginners. Each CD-ROM contains five chapters, for a total of 20 chapters. The Web edition of Filoglossia contains part of the material of the first 15 chapters, but it does not contain all the material of each CD-ROM.
This page is devoted to Modern Greek. It includes various handouts in .pdf format on a number of topics.  
Harry Foundalis' Ask a Greek!
If you have a question about Greek, Foundalis allows anyone to ask 2 free questions. After that, he has a small fee. Students of Modern Greek can direct their questions to a native Greek speaker.
Harry Foundalis' Greek Verbs Intro
This guide, written by a native Greek, is primarily about verbs in Modern Greek, but it also gives information about verbs in Ancient Greek.
Harry Foundalis' Modern Greek and Accentuation
Learn the rules of accentuation with Modern Greek with this resource.
Harry Foundalis' Overview of Greek Grammar
This guide, written by a native Greek, is an overview of verbs, nouns, numbers, other parts of speech, and the phrase structure in Modern and Ancient Greek.  
Harry Foundalis' The Greek Alphabet
The author contrast Modern Greek pronunciation with Ancient Greek. This resource includes pronunciation audio.  
Learn Greek Online
Learn Greek Online is currently composed of 105 real audio files (around 15 minutes each), online student notes, a collection of collaborative learning tools and an online Greek dictionary and a Greek spell checker. Registration is required, but the materials are offered free of charge.
Pernot-Polack's Grammaire de Grec Moderne
This is a modern Greek grammar by Hubert Octave Pernot and Camille Polack was written in French and published in 1921.