My Greek Tools

Regardless of your level of Greek instruction (beginning, intermediate, advanced), I hope you will find something useful on this page. Most of the links are to

Beginning Greek

Learn to Read New Testament Greek
This is a link to my introductory Greek Grammar, Learn to Read New Testament Greek.
Here are sixth helpful resources pertaining to my introductory grammar:
The first is a PowerPoint flashcard program using Bible Works vocabulary links. The vocabulary for my grammar is ready for download as .pdf and .ppt files.
The second resource is Jacob Cerone's Quizlet page, which has a set of flash cards for my beginning Greek grammar. The files for my book appear at the top of the section titled “Sets.”
The third resource is a complete list of vocabulary for all my Greek classes developed by Jacob Cerone. This includes the vocabulary for my Learn to Read New Testament Greek (Greek 1 & 2), Metzger's vocabulary (Greek Syntax and Exegesis), Philippians (Intermediate Exegesis), and LXX. Click here for the .zip file. These flashcards can be loaded onto the Vocab Pro application for iPod, iPhone, iPad. For a detailed explanation on how to install the vocabulary files to your Apple device and additional vocabulary files, go here.
The fourth resource is Danny Zacharias' Greek Flash Black Edition flashcard app (Mac). 
The fifth resource is audio for the Greek vocabulary from lessons 1-7 (excluding chapter 2). Chapter 1; Chapter 3; Chapter 4; Chapter 5; Chapter 6; and Chapter 7.
The sixth resource is a parsing guide for all the exercises in my Learn to Read New Testament Greek developed Jacob Cerone.
Spanish Edition of Learn to Read New Testament Greek
This is a link to my introductory Greek Grammar in Spanish, Aprenda a Leer el Griego del Nuevo Testamento.



Jacob Cerone's Quizlet page has a set of flash cards for my beginning Greek grammar. The files for my book appear at the top of the section titled “Sets.”

Learn to Read New Testament Greek DVDs

Greek DVDs Now Available
This 24 DVD set records me teaching New Testament Greek using my introductory Greek grammar. The classes were taught in English even though they were recorded before a live audience in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Intermediate Greek

It's Still Greek to Me: An Easy-to-Understand Guide to Intermediate Greek
In this book I've tried to write an easy-to-use guide to intermediate Greek. I apologize in advance for all the nurdy jokes.

Advanced Greek

Linguistics for Students of New Testament Greek: A Survey of Basic Concepts and Applications
This book introduces Greek students to the field of linguistics and shows you how its findings can increase your understanding of the New Testament.
Linguistics and New Testament Interpretation: Essays on Discourse Analysis
This is an introduction to Greek discourse analysis with special emphasis on its practical application to the language of the New Testament. Part I of the book introduces some fundamental principles of discourse analysis. Part II analyzes the discourse features of selected New Testament texts.

Greek Exegesis

Using New Testament Greek in Ministry: A Practical Guide for Students and Pastors
In this book I walk you through using your knowledge of New Testament Greek in exegesis. Whether you are fresh out of your introductory Greek courses or have not touched your Greek New Testament since seminary, this book will help you use the language in teaching preparation.

New Testament Interpretation

The New Testament: Its Background and Message
In this book, Tommy Lea and I have tried to produce a clear and concise introduction to the New Testament. This book is somewhat unique in that it combines an introduction and a survey.
Interpreting the New Testament: Essays on Methods and Issues
This is a sequel to New Testament Criticism and Interpretation. David Dockery and I present essays on current issues and methods with the purpose of enhancing New Testament interpretation, teaching, and preaching.

New Testament Textual Criticism

New Testament Textual Criticism: A Concise Guide
This book introduces the fundamentals of New Testament textual criticism and helps you learn how to make decisions based on the internal and external evidence. It is a concise companion to Brotzman's Old Testament Textual Criticism.
Rethinking New Testament Textual Criticism
Leading scholars survey the discipline and present three current approaches to determining the text of the New Testament.
Scribes and Scripture: New Testament Essays in Honor of J. Harold Greenlee
This Festschrift is addressed to anyone who is interested in what J. Harold Greenlee has exemplified so well through forty-five years of teaching and writing: vivere et studere ad maiorem Dei gloriam.
Key Issues in New Testament Criticism (Audio Series)
In this series I provide insight for how to interpret and respond to important issues raised by New Testament Textual Criticism.

The Gospels

Rethinking the Synoptic Problem
This book's primary goal is to familiarize students with the main positions held by New Testament scholars in this much-debated area of research. The contributors to this volume, all leading biblical scholars, highlight current academic trends within New Testament scholarship and update evangelical understandings of the Synoptic Problem.
Why Four Gospels?
In this succinct treatment of the Synoptic Problem, I have attempted to provide a new look at the Markan priority debate regarding the historical origins of the gospel writings and offer in its place the "fourfold gospel hypothesis." By taking into account data within the gospels themselves and evidence from the early church fathers, I affirm the traditional view that Matthew was the first gospel written and suggest that Luke was written as its Gentile counterpart. Peter, whose recollections form the basis of Mark, provided the apostolic stamp of approval for Luke's gospel by drawing from both prior sources and bridging the gap between the two books.
Perspectives on the Ending of Mark
Because it is conspicuously absent from more than one early Greek manuscript, the final section of the gospel of Mark (16:9-20) that details Christ’s resurrection remains a constant source of debate among serious students of the New Testament. This book presents in counterpoint form the split opinions about this difficult passage with a goal of determining which is more likely. Maurice Robinson and I argue for the verses’ authenticity. Keith Elliott and Daniel Wallace contend that they are not original to Mark’s gospel. Darrell Bock responds to each view and summarizes the state of current research on the entire issue.

Pauline Studies

Paul, Apostle of Weakness
In this book I examine every occurrence of astheneia and its cognates in the Pauline Epistles, both in their immediate contexts and in their relation to Pauline thought as a whole. The Pauline weakness motif is then summarized, with the conclusion that the concept of weakness is foundational to Paul's anthropology, Christology, and ethics.
The Authorship of Hebrews: The Case for Paul
In this adaptation of two articles I wrote for Faith and Mission, I re-examine both the internal and external evidence for the authorship of Hebrews. I conclude on basis of the church's early attribution of the epistle to Paul and linguistic affinities between the epistle and other Pauline writings, that it is more than likely that Paul authored the epistle.

The Christian Life/Missions

Christian Archy
What does it mean to be part of the kingdom of God? This questions should occupy the mind of every Christian. In this book I examine the New Testament to find the truly radical and all-encompassing claims of God's kingdom. In doing so, it becomes clear that the character of this kingdom is widely different from what is commonly contemplated today. Its glory is revealed only through suffering--a point that Jesus' disciples, then and now, have been slow to understand. Christ's claim to our total allegiance is one we seek to avoid at all costs. But there is only one way to victory and peace, and that way is the way of the Lamb.
It's All Greek to Me: Confessions of an Unlikely Academic
I wrote this book as an autobiography of my academic journey. Ever wonder how a boy from Hawaii become a Basel graduate and professor of Greek, and why I still teach Greek after all these years? You will find the answers in these pages.
La Historia de Mi Vida (Spanish Edition)
La Historia de mi Vida por Becky Lynn Black no es la autobiografía de una celebridad. Es algo mucho mejor. La historia de Becky es un testimonio. Y el poder llegar a ser vencedores a través de la palabra de nuestro testimonio es una promesa (Apocalipsis 12:12). Un testimonio no solo se trata de una historia que satisface la curiosidad. Un testimonio presenta un llamado divino. La historia en este libro te llamará a poner a Dios en primer lugar, especialmente en tu matrimonio. Te llamará a las misiones. De hecho, este testimonio es la historia del Evangelio. Dios te ama, murió para salvarte y te llama a que te unas a Él en el ministerio de la reconciliación. No importa a donde vayas o cuales sean los problemas que enfrentes, pues Dios estará contigo. El no removerá todas tus dificultades, pero Él trabajará a través de ti de una forma u otra. Cuando Becky Lynn Black partió a su hogar en el Cielo, no fue una victoria del cáncer que trató de vencerla. Esto fue una victoria de Dios sobre la muerte, manifestada en la vida de Su sierva.
My Life Story: by Becky Black
Before her passing, my wife Becky dictated her autobiography. She tells of the adventures she had in Ethiopia, her early years, her marriage to me, and her return to the mission field. One theme permeates these pages: Christ-centered living. 
Seven Marks of a New Testament Church: A Guide for Christians of All Ages
What were the distinctive marks of an early New Testament church? Acts 2:37–47 has a list of seven aspects: evangelistic preaching, christian baptism, apostolic preaching, genuine relationships, Christ-centered gatherings, fervent prayer, and sacrificial living. Does your church look like a New Testament church?
The Jesus Paradigm
I've written this book for anyone who is dissatisfied with cultural Christianity and who longs for a greater reality in the whole Body of Christ. What does it look like to really follow Jesus Christ? The answer I found is that following Christ means living sacrificially, just like him.
The Myth of Adolescence
This study looks at the origins of the theory of adolescence and finds it seriously flawed. I examine the age 12 and age 30 transitions in the life of Jesus and explore what impact this has on our understanding of human development.
Will You Join the Cause of Global Missions?
Who is really supposed to go and fulfill the Great Commission? You? Me? The church in America has come to depend on professionals to "do ministry." In many churches, the pastor, paid to do the job, is the one who is expected to carry out all functions of the church. But it was not always this way. Instead of looking for professionals to do the ministry while the rest of us fill the pews, I point us back to the Gospel Commission and the call on every Christian life to fulfill that Commission.


  • Abidan Paul Shah, Hoi Polloi Podcast, Dr. David Alan Black, an interview about It's All Greek to Me: Confessions of an Unlikely Academic 
  • Abidan Paul Shah, Hoi Polloi Podcast, Dr. David Alan Black, an interview about Why Four Gospels: The Historical Origins of the Gospels
  • Michael James Gordon, Messiah Community Radio Talk Show, Dr. David Alan Black, an interview: Have You Ever Tried to Learn Biblical Greek? 


DBO Essays about Greek

The Permutations of “Jesus Loves John” in Greek
This is an incomplete list of 96 permutations of "Jesus Loves John" in Greek. It serves as an example of the flexibility available within the Greek language. 
Ten Best Books for Studying New Testament Greek
"How do I move from my current knowledge of Greek to a greater understanding of the languages?" Here are 10 resources that will be instrumental in your development.
Five Things to Do Until You Master Greek
So you’re studying New Testament Greek and finding it a bit of a challenge. A lot of people don’t stick with it. “I tried learning Greek and it didn’t work for me.” The problem may just be that you never learned persistence. Do you want to master the Greek language and be able to use it in your walk with God and in your service for Him? If you do, you will have to put forth some effort. Here are five suggestions how you can "stick with it" in a practical sense.
Confessions of a Missional Greek Prof
In this short essay, I share my heart about the one thing that is more important than anything else, namely the Great Commission. Even though I have many interests, and even though I have often voiced my criticisms of much in the church’s practical life, nothing motivates me more than being a "missional Greek prof."
Greek Student: Quo Vadis?
It's the end of your Greek semester. Exams are finished. Classes are in recess, or perhaps graduation lies right around the corner. In this short essay, I encourage students to build on the foundation they received from their studies in New Testament Greek.
Letter to My Greek Students
I wrote this short letter for my students of New Testament Greek. What's the point in teaching someone Greek? Why did you even learn all of the verbs, nouns, and principal parts? 

Articles, Essays, and Other Works

The Peculiarities of Ephesians and the Ephesian Address
GTJ 2 (1981): 59-73.  
The Weak in Thesalonica: A Study in Pauline Lexicography
JETS 25 (1982): 307-21. 
Weakness Language in Galatians
Biblica 64 (1983): 240-42.
Paulus Infirmus: The Pauline Concept of Weakness
GTJ (1984): 77-93.
The Text of John 3:13
GTJ 6 (1985): 49-66.
Paul and Christian Unity: A Formal Analysis of Philippians 2:1-4
JETS 28 (1985): 299-308.
The Problem of the Literary Structure of Hebrews: An Evaluation and a Proposal
GTJ 7 (1986): 163-77.
Hebrews 1:1-4: A Study in Discourse Analysis
WTJ 49 (1987): 175-94.
The Translation of Matthew 5.2
Bible Translator 38 (1 987): 241 -43. An archived copy of the article can also be obtained through SAGE here.
A Note on the Structure of Hebrews 12,1 -2
Biblica 68 (1 987): 543-51.
Jesus on Anger: The Text of Matthew 5:22a Revisited
Novum Testamentum 30 (1988): 1 -8.
The Text of Mark 6.20
NTS 34 (1988): 141 -45. The article can also be found here.
The Authorship of Philippians 2:6-11: Some Literary-Critical Observations
CTR 2 (1988): 269-89.
New Testament Semitisms
Bible Translator 39 (1988): 215-23. An archived copy can also be obtained through SAGE here.
On the Style and Significance of John 17
CTR 3 (1988): 141-59.
Some Dissenting Notes on R. Stein’s The Synoptic Problem and Markan ‘Errors’
Filologia Neotestamentaria 1 (1988): 95-101.
The Pauline Love Command: Structure, Style, and Ethics in Romans 12:9-21
Filologia Neotestamentaria 2 (1989): 3-22.
Conjectural Emendations in the Gospel of Matthew
Novum Testamentum 31 (1989): 1-15.
Remarks on the Translation of Matthew 7:14
Filologia Neotestamentaria 2 (1989): 193-195.
In Mercer Dictionary of the Bible (Macon, GA: Mercer, 1990).
Food Offered to Idols
In Mercer Dictionary of the Bible (Macon, GA: Mercer, 1990).
Luke the Physician
In Mercer Dictionary of the Bible (Macon, GA: Mercer, 1990).
In Mercer Dictionary of the Bible (Macon, GA: Mercer, 1990).
The Study of New Testament Greek in the Light of Ancient and Modern Linguistics
In New Testament Criticism and Interpretation (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1991).
El Grupo de Juan. Helenismo y Gnosis
In Origenes del Cristianismo (Cordoba: Ediciones El Almendro, 1991).
Taken from Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels edited by Joel B. Green, Jeannine K. Brown and Nicholas Perrin. Copyright (c) 2013 by InterVarsity Christian Fellowship/USA. Used by permission of InterVarsity Press, P.O. Box 1400, Downers Grove  IL 
The Unity and Variety of the Bible
In Holman Bible Handbook (Nashville: Holman, 1992).
On Translating New Testament Poetry
In Scribes and Scripture: New Testament Essays in Honor of J. Harold Greenlee (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1992).
Taken from Dictionary of Paul and His Letters edited by Gerald F. Hawthorne, Ralph P. Martin and Daniel G. Reid. Copyright (c) 1993 InterVarsity Christian Fellowship/USA. Used by permission of InterVarsity Press, P.O. Box 1400, Downers Grove  IL
Textual Criticism of the New Testament
In Foundations for Biblical Interpretation (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1994). 
Discourse Analysis, Synoptic Criticism, and the Problem of Markan Grammar: Some Methodological Considerations
In Linguistics and New Testament Interpretation (Nashville: Broadman, 1992).
Literary Artistry in the Epistle to the Hebrews
Filologia Neotestamentaria 7 (1994): 43-52.
Section Headings in Philippians
Notes on Translation 8 (1994): 27-33.
The Discourse Structure of Philippians: A Study in Textlinguistics
Novum Testamentum 37 (1995): 16-49.
How Much Lettuce is There in the New Testament?
Notes on Translation 12 (1998): 16-26.
The Literary Structure of 1-2 Thessalonians
Southern Baptist Journal of Theology 3 (1999) 46-57. 
On the Pauline Authorship of Hebrews (Part 1): Overlooked Affinities between Hebrews and Paul
Faith and Mission 16 (1999): 32-51.
On the Pauline Authorship of Hebrews (Part 2): The External Evidence Reconsidered
Faith and Mission 16 (1999) 78-86.
The Historical Origins of the Gospels
Faith and Mission 18 (2000) 21-42.
The Study of New Testament Greek in the Light of Ancient and Modern Linguistics
In Interpreting the New Testament (Nashville: Broadman and Holman, 2001).
Jesus on Anger (Matthew 5,22a): A History of Recent Scholarship 
In Greek, Jews, and Christians (Córdoba: Ediciones el Almendro, 2013).