Septuagint (LXX)


Here's what you will find on this page:

Introduction to the Septuagint
Read the Septuagint Online
General Resources
Septuagint Greek Grammar
Technical Works Available Online
Recommended Works


Introduction to the Septuagint

Reeves, Ryan. What Is the Septuagint?
This is a helpful brief introduction to the Septuagint. It’s very basic, but it introduces a number of the most important aspects of Septuagint study.
deSilva, David. The Septuagint. (Youtube lecture)
An introduction to the Greek translation of the Old Testament and its importance for Hellenistic Judaism and early Christianity.
Irons, Lee. "Influence of the Septuagint on the Greek New Testament"
Lee Irons shows examples of how the Septuagint influences the NT in terms of spelling, vocabulary, syntax, and quotations.
Jellicoe, Sidney. The Septuagint and Modern Study
Jellicoe's treatment of the Septuagint is more than 60 years removed from Swete's Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek (on which, see below). This book is not meant, in any way, to supplant the work of Swete. Instead, Jellicoe sought to address, shed light on, and perhaps answer some of the questions that have arisen in the study of the LXX since the time of Swete. Jellicoe covers a host of issues in this work. These topics include: Introduction including a history of the LXX's beginnings and development, transmission history (Origen, the Letter of Aristeas, Philo), the early and later revisions, the manuscripts of the LXX, the text-critical editions of the LXX, the language and style of the translators, and finally the current situation in LXX studies. This text is instrumental in discovering the history and development of LXX studies, though it is a bit dated.
Swete, H. B. An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek
This book is available free for viewing online and download. It is a classic on the Septuagint. It is dated, but broad ranging and useful for grasping some of the major topics related to the Greek OT. Very helpful, especially when supplemented by something up to date such as Jobes and Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint. You can also find it here.

Read the Septuagint Online
This website from the German Bible Society allows you to read the text of Rhalf's Septuagint.
Elpenor Parallel English-Greek OT
This is an Elpenor resource, hosted online (i.e., not available for download), which allows visitors to read the Greek and English side-by-side. It features the Greek text used by the Church of Greece.  
Field's Hexapla: Fragments of the entire Greek Old Testament, Volume 1 and Volume 2.
Origen's Hexapla was a critical edition of the OT with six parallel columns in which were the following: (1) the Hebrew consonantal text; (2) the Hebrew text transliterated into Greek letters; (3) Aquila's Greek OT; (4) Symmachus' Greek OT; (5) The LXX (traditional Greek OT); (6) Theodotion's Greek OT. The Hexapla exists only in fragmentary form. The edition by Fields (linked to above) is free for use. The Hexapla Institute is currently in the process of editing a revised edition of the Hexapla fragments.
Online Greek Bible
In this website will you find the text of the LXX/GOC and the LXXa.
New English Translation of the Septuagint
Here one can have free access to the recently published New English Translation of the Septuagint. Not only is there a translation of all the books of the LXX, there are also translation notes and introductions for each book discussing the major issues accompanying the study of the individual books. It can be downloaded for free.
Parsing Resources for the Septuagint
Here are several parsing tools for the LXX:
(1) has the parsing for each word when you click on it. It gives a definition, is linked to Thayer’s, gives the Strong’s number, and has some additional info and the ability to search for the word.
(2) Tyndale House’s STEP Bible gives the definition when you float over it, and gives parsing when you click on it. You can also search for the word. An interesting feature is that when you float over a word, every occurrence on the screen is highlighted.
(3) Studybible has the parsing written over each word with the Strong’s number and links to Strong’s for each word.
Swete, H. B. The Old Testament in Greek According to the Septuagint
Henry Barclay Swete's three volume set on the Greek Old Testament is available for free in multiple formats: Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3.
Thackeray, Henry St. John. Old Testament Greek Text Codex Vaticanus
Here is a diplomatic reproduction of codex Vaticanus that includes a critical apparatus with variant readings from other manuscripts. It is available in multiple formats.

General Resources

Amos Flashcards
This resource is an export from Logos that provides the vocabulary of Amos as flashcards. 
Amos Vocabulary
This pdf is an export from Logos that provides the vocabulary of Amos along with the word count, card front, and gloss. 
The Apostolic Bible Polyglot
This site provides many resources. You will find a LXX interlinear, concordance, English-Greek Index, Analytical Lexicon, Video Seminars and much much more.
Biblia Graeca - Septuagint + NA28
The German Bible Society will release a new text that will combine Rhalfs Septuagint text with the NA28. Now you can have both Old and New Testaments in the Greek!
Biblia Mirecurensia
This site has a free downloadable text of the Greek New Testament, Hebrew Old Testament, and the Greek Old Testament (Septuagint). The editor's goal is to provide a text for beginners to read without confusing them with extra marks (such as text-critical symbols). Unique features include headings that represent the editor's understanding of the discourse structure and some added modern punctuation (parentheses, quotation marks, exclamation points, some added paragraph breaks). There is no apparatus (OT or NT) or vowel pointings in the OT. At this point, the Septuagint contains the Pentateuch, Historical Books, and Psalms.
The Centre for Septuagint Studies and Textual Criticism
"The Centre for Septuagint Studies and Textual Criticism primarily aims at doing text-critical research (collation, description and evaluation of the textual variants) of the Hebrew and Greek textual evidence of the Old Testament."
International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies
The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies is an international society dedicated to the research and study of the Septuagint. Here you can learn about the various project that are currently being undertaken, announcements pertaining to upcoming meetings and conferences, the journal, and how to become a member of the society.
K-J, Abram. Greek Isaiah in a Year
Abram K.J. has divided up the Greek text of Isaiah into manageable chunks to be read throughout the year. In each post, he provides a copy of the Greek text for translation. 
K-J, Abram. How to Read and Understand the Göttingen Septuagint
Here is a primer on how to read and understand the largest scholarly edition of the Greek translation of the Old Testament. Part 1 covers the Greek text and the source list. Part 2 covers critical apparatus. Here is a chart of abbreviations for the apparatus.
LePort, Brian. "Review of Timothy Michael Law's 'When God Spoke Greek'"
Brian LePort over at Near Emmaus organized a blog tour for Timothy Michael Law's When God Spoke Greek. Each of the book's 13 chapters were divided among Septuagint bloggers and reviewed.
Lexham Greek-English Interlinear Septuagint
Logos Bible Software has created this interlinear Septuagint, which uses Rahlf's LXX as the foundation for the Greek text.
Psalm 1, Recited in Greek, by Jayson Ramiscal
Jayson Ramiscal provides a clear recitation of Greek Psalm 1 from memory. 
Psalm 1, Recited in Hebrew, by C.K. Oon
C.K. Oon provides a clear recitation of Hebrew Psalm 1 from memory. 
Ross, William. "New Ph.D. Program in Septuagint Studies (McMaster Divinity College)"
Ross here describes the new Ph.D. program in Septuagint Studies at McMaster Divinity College.
Ross, William. "One Year Graded Septuagint Reading Plan"
Ross has drawn up a one year reading plan that goes through selections of the Septuagint, starting from the easier books and ending with the harder books. It's a perfect place to start if you want a regular Greek reading plan.
Seth Ellington's Quizlet
One of Dr. David Black's students, Seth Ellington, put together this Quizlet folder using Decker's vocab list. He split the words up into chunks of about 50 each based on frequency.
Septuagint Online
Joel Kalvesmaki's website hosts resources and a Septuagint and Old Greek Studies discussion list (Yahoo Group). His tab "Studies and Analysis" is a link to a plethora of LXX resources, including grammars, other LXX web pages, and translation techniques in the LXX. The discussion list aims to facilitate exchange between theologians, biblical scholars, philologists, and students of Septuagint studies in order to contribute to further understanding of the Septuagint and Old Greek versions of the Hebrew Scriptures. Their discussions involves a number of disciplines, including philology, theology, classics, biblical studies, religion, and literary criticism. 
The Septuagint and the New Testament: An Interview with Dr. Larry Perkins.
Interview with Dr. Larry Perkins on the relationship between the Septuagint and the New Testament. Questions addressed are 1) What is the proper starting point for investigating this relationship? 2) What makes it so difficult to identify uses of the Septuagint in New Testament documents?


La Bible D'Alexandrie
A blog on the Septuagint by Anne Cavé. (It is in French.)
LXX Studies
John Meade, a PhD graduate of Southern Baptist under Peter Gentry, blogs about the Septuagint, Hexapla, Peshitta, Vulgate, and the Targums here. Dr. Meade also blogs at Evangelical Textual Criticism.
Brian Davidson is currently a PhD candidate under the mentorship of Dr. Peter Gentry. His focus is on the textual history of the Old Testament specifically as it relates to the Septuagint, and he shares his thoughts on the Septuagint and other matters here on this blog.
Ross, William A. Old Testament & Septuagint Studies
Ross is a PhD candidate at Cambridge, studying under Dr. James Aitken. His area of study is the LXX, especially looking at LXX Judges linguistically with reference to koine Greek. You will find numerous helpful resources and perspectives related to the Septuagint at his blog. See especially his page LXX Resources for a number of helpful links.

Septuagint Greek Grammar

Conybeare, F. C., and St. George Stock. Selections from the Septuagint
This is a grammar of Septuagint Greek using seven selections/readings from the Greek OT. It was published in 1905 and is available in .pdf format.
Helbing, Robert. Grammatik der Septuaginta: Laut- und Wortlehre
This is a 1907 edition of Robert Helbing's Septuagint grammar. It is available in multiple formats.
Johannessohn, Martin. Der Gebrauch der Kasus und der Präpositionen in der Septuaginta
This is Martin Johannessohn's doctoral dissertation dealing with cases and prepositions in the LXX. It was published in 1910. It is available in multiple formats.  
Muraoka. A Syntax of Septuagint Greek
This syntax is not cheap, but it is the recent standard. You can read a brief review by William Ross here, and one by Michael Aubrey here.
Thackeray, Henry St. John. A Grammar of the Old Testament in Greek
This book is available free for viewing online and download.

Technical Works Available Online

Arieti, James Alexander. "A Study in the Septuagint of the Book of Amos"
This dissertation traces the early translation and transmission of the book Amos carefully comparing the MSS text with the LXX. 
Bulletin of the International Organization of Septuagint and Cognate Studies (BIOSCS)
The first 33 volumes of the bulletin, which is now entitled the Journal of Septuagint and Cognate Studies, are available online. This is an indispensable resource for Septuagint studies.
Chan, Ken. "The Information Structure of the Book of Esther in the Septuagint"
This link is Ken Chan's PhD dissertation under Kevin Smith and Frank Jabini at the South African Theological Seminary. Ken uses functional linguistics in order to discover the purpose of the Septuagint book of Esther and its discourse boundaries.
Computer Assisted Tools for Septuagint/Scriptural Study
This is a project by Robert Kraft and the University of Pennsylvania to publish LXX texts and resources. Currently the page is home to a parallel Hebrew-Greek OT, a morphological analysis module, and a textual variants resource.
Dines, Jennifer Mary. "The Septuagint of Amos: A Study in Interpretation"
This dissertation attempts to identify the exegetical character of Amos (LXX) and to trace its influence on biblical interpretation to the mid-fifth century CE. 
Domazakis, Nikolas. "Septuagintal Hapax Legomena and Neologisms in 2 Maccabees, 4-7"
Domazakis' MA Thesis under Professor Karin Blomqvist explores the language of 2 Maccabees 4-7. This text provides the possibility for a rich pay out due to the fact that it was originally written in Greek (not liable to the translationese of the LXX), yet is thoroughly religious in nature.
Evans, Trevor V. Verbal Syntax in the Greek Pentateuch: Natural Greek Usage and Hebrew Interference
"This book is a study of verbal syntax that addresses the entire Greek Pentateuch and investigates the value of these translations as evidence for the history of the Greek language. The nature and degree of Hebrew interference are assessed, including analysis of Hebrew text components underlying all Greek verbal forms in the Pentateuch. This data allows conclusions to be drawn on natural Greek usage of aspect, tense, and mood. Their implications extend well beyond the special issues of translation Greek, casting significant light on the development of the verbal system in the Koine period, the period in which a non-dialectic form of the Greek language was used, post-Alexander the Great."
Joosten, Jan. "Interpretation and Meaning in the Septuagint Translation"
Jan Joosten presented this shortened paper at the international conference on Translation–Interpretation–Meaning, held at the Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies on January 27-29, 2005. The paper grapples with the fact that a translation can never completely be true to the source text due to a number of factors, yet it remains as faithful as possible. How does this fact relate to the translation of the word of God? Joosten compares Genesis 12:4 in the Septuagint and the Masoretic Texts.
Kim, Keunjoo. "Theology and Identity of the Egyptian Jewish Diaspora in Septuagint of Isaiah"
The author argues that the Septuagint version of Isaiah is not simply a translation of the Hebrew book. LXX Isaiah is also an interpretation of the book that reflects the theological dispositions of the translator's community in Egypt. He argues that "free translators" should not be attributed to a different Vorlage (source) or a difficult construction, but is the result of a the translator's theological views.
McLay, Robert Timothy. "Translation Technique and Textual Studies in the Old Greek and Theodotion Versions of Daniel"
Robert McLay's PhD dissertation proposes that attention to more than literalism in terms of translation technique is needed in the study of the Septuagint. Modern Linguistic research must be incorporated. McLay's dissertation develops and applies such a model to the Old Greek and Theodotion versions of Daniel.
Murphy, Cara. "Examining the Septuagint: An Exploration of the Greek Old Testament's Unique Heritage and Lasting Impact on the New Testament"
Cara Murphy's Master of Arts thesis under Donald Fowler explores three questions. First, what is the origin of the Septuagint? Second, what is the nature of the Septuagint's language? Finally, what is the relationship between the Septuagint and Acts 13?
Niccacci, A. "Marked Syntactical Structures in Biblical Greek in Comparison with Biblical Hebrew"
Niccacci explores the markedness of nominal clauses in both biblical Hebrew and biblical Greek. Both languages exhibit proclivities towards verb-subject-complement as normal sentence order. When this is altered, these exceptions must be further explored.
Noegel, Scott B. "Wordplay and Translation Technique in the Septuagint of Job"
Scott Noegel, professor of Near Eastern Languages and Civilization at the University of Washington, explores the Septuagint's treatment of Janus parallelism in Job. He analyses six examples form the book of Job: John 3:25-26; 10:7-8; 20:23-24; 28:9-10; 29:19-20; and 39:19-20). The ultimate proposal of the study is that "an awareness of Hebrew ambiguity might account for some instances of textual variance in the LXX in particular, and in the various other ancient translations in general." This article was originally published in Aula Orientalis 14 (1995), 33-44.
O'Hare, Daniel M. "'Have You Seen, Son of Man?': Preliminary Studies in the Translation and Vorlage of LXX Ezekiel 40-48"
This is a .pdf of Daniel O'Hare's 2009 PhD dissertation under Gary Anderson. The thesis explores the translational goals of the LXX translator of Ezekiel 40-48 in light of the following: "biblical corpora existed in variant literary editions" and methodologies in the study of the Septuagint, which include either a focus on translation technique or a focus on reception-history.
Ottley, R. R. The Book of Isaiah According to the Septuagint
A two-volume work on the Greek text of Isaiah compared to the Hebrew edition. Volume one is an introduction and translation of Isaiah according to Codex Alexandrinus. Volume two contains the Greek text of Isaiah along with commentary.
Park, Aaron W. "The Book of Amos as Composed and Read in Antiquity"
Park's article looks at the transmission of Amos (LXX) while focusing on the differences between the Old Greek and the MT. 
Pietersma, Albert. Home Page.
Albert Pietersma is a key player in the current discussions of the Septuagint. At his home page you will find a virtually all of his published articles free in .pdf format. The topics of his published articles include Psalms, Translation Technique, work on the NETS, and much much more.
Sollamo, Raija. "An Example of Consistency: Interpretation by the Translator of the Greek Genesis in Rendering the Hebrew Semipreposition לִפְנֵי"
Though Sollamo's dissertation dealt with the three semantic fields of לפני defined as local, temporal, and intermediate field, she was not able to cover the philosophy or psychology of the translator, as it was a question that was outside the scope of the study. This paper seeks to address that question.
Tov, Emmanuel. "Emanuel Tov"
This is a link to Emanuel Tov's website. If you navigate from there to his "publications" tab, you will find almost every one of his articles available in .pdf free. This is an invaluable resource for Septuagint studies, Hebrew studies, and the textual criticism of the Old Testament.
Van Der Louw, T. A. W. "Transformations in the Septuagint: Towards an Interaction of Septuagint Studies and Translation Studies"
Van Der Louw writes, "The aim of this study is to promote interaction between Translation Studies and the study of the Septuagint with a keen eye to methodology." The study explores matters such as the relationship between dynamic equivalence and interpretation, whether one can distinguish between linguistic features and interpretive features within a translation, and many other essential topics for the study of the LXX.
Wevers, John. LXX Text Histories
John Wevers LXX Histories of Exodus, Deuteronomy, Leviticus, and Numbers are available for free in pdf format. There are also a number of other helpful resources for LXX studies available on the same site.
Wright, Benjamin G., III. The Letter of Aristeas and the Question of Septuagint Origins Redux
The claims made by the Letter of Aristeas on behalf of the Septuagint (and by Septuagint, Wright only has the Pentateuch in view) are thorny. One of these claims, which Wright says unconsciously undergirds much of scholarship, contends that the Greek translation was meant to supplant the Hebrew original. This article examines this claim in light of the actual character of the Septuagint. 
Wright, Benjamin G., III. "Translation Greek in Sirach in Light of the Grandson's Prologue"
Wright, in this article, finds the prologue to Sirach to be a fascinating look into the mind and attitude of an ancient translator. He observes that the prologue, written by the translator, has a quality of Greek that is not matched throughout the translation. Wright reflects on the significance this has in the study of translation technique. The article also engages with the works of Theo A. W. van der Louw's Transformations in the Septuagint and Dries de Crom's "Translation Equivalence in the Prologue to Greek Ben Sirach."
Aejmelaeus, Anneli. On the Trail of the Septuagint Translators
On the Trail of the Septuagint Translators is a collection of previously published essays written by Anneli Aejmelaeus. The essays are written from 1980-2005 and cover a breath of material. The author employs a translation-technical approach to the areas of syntax, statistical analysis versus theological analysis, and text-critical matters. It is Aejmelaeus' goal to discover the trail left behind by the very human translators of the original Hebrew texts. Some of the articles included are "Pariticipium conjunctum as a Criterion of Translation Technique," "OTI recitativum in Septuagintal Greek," and "What We Talk about when We Talk about Translation Technique."
Cerone, Jacob. Into the Deep: A Comparative Discourse Analysis of the Masoretic and Septuagint Versions of Jonah
My former assistant, Jacob Cerone, has published his Master's thesis. From the publisher: "This study of Jonah utilizes discourse analysis to draw out both major and minor differences between the Greek (Septuagint) and Hebrew text forms of this ancient work. Specifically, it places emphasis on intentional and/or unintentional translational differences that have influenced Jonah’s meaning and rhetoric. "Into the Deep" explores and exposes numerous difficulties encountered when translating literature, such as the prospect of altering a text’s unique characteristics. Insofar as all translation is an act of interpretation, "Into the Deep" also impresses upon the reader the enduring value of early translations as primitive commentaries."
Dines, Jennifer. The Septuagint
Dines' work serves as an introduction to modern scholarly discussions on the Septuagint. In her work she surveys common terminology, primary sources, secondary sources, the content of the Septuagint, the character of individual books of the LXX, the letter of Aristeas, the origin and purpose of the LXX, the status of the LXX from Philo to Jerome, the recensions and versions of the LXX, the language and style of the LXX, and the use of the LXX from its origins to today.
Jobes, Karen, and Moisés Silva. Invitation to the Septuagint
Invitation to the Septuagint was born out of Karen Jobes' doctoral program, wherein she came to the conclusion that it was necessary to have a warm and inviting text that introduces the Septuagint to students with no prior knowledge of the subject. This text covers a host of topics within LXX studies including the terminology commonly used, history of the LXX, the current state of scholarship, foundational concepts, and major issues in the study of the Septuagint. The authors' desire for the book is that it might serve as a bridge between those interested in LXX studies and the "more sophisticated literature produced by scholars working in the field." This second edition came out in 2015.
Muraoka, T. A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint
Muraoka has provided a Greek-English lexicon that has been specifically tailored to the text of the Septuagint. Muraoka does not simply provide a gloss for each Greek word. He includes synonyms, antonyms, idiomatic expressions, and a distinction between literal and figurative renderings.
Muraoka, T. A Greek-Hebrew/Aramaic Two-Way Index to the Septuagint
Muraoka's Greek-Hebrew Index to the Septuagint is an indispensable tool for all students and scholars of the Septuagint. In this work, Muraoka lists the corresponding Hebrew words for a given Greek work in the Septuagint. He also provides statistical data for how many times the words correspond to one another. This tool is helpful for all interested in the lexical dimension of Septuagint studies specifically the issue of stereotyping.
Olofsson, Staffan. God is My Rock: A Study of Translation Technique and Theological Exegesis in the Septuagint
God is My Rock is a revised version of Staffan Oloffson's dissertation that was presented to the faculty of the Uppsala University. The thrust of the dissertation centers around the anthropomorphisms in Psalms specifically and the metaphorical names of God used throughout the Septuagint generally.
Tov, Emanuel. The Greek and Hebrew Bible: Collected Essays on the Septuagint
This massive tome is full of essays authored by Emanuel Tov on the Septuagint. The included essays are arranged according to topic. Topics include "General Studies," "Lexicography," "Translation Technique and Exegesis," "The Septuagint and the Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible," "The Septuagint and the Literary Criticism of te Hebrew Bible," and "Revisions of the Septuagint."