Dictionaries & Lexicons


Here's what you will find on this page:

On Lexicography and Word Studies
BDAG and Louw-Nida Greek-English Lexicons
Online Lexicons and Dictionaries
Books and Other Manuscripts


On Lexicography and Word Studies

Himes, Paul. "The Meaning of Words"
In this two-part blog post, Paul Himes discusses in simple but accurate language how to understand word meanings. In Part 1: Words and Concepts, he distinguishes between words and concepts, showing that one word can refer to multiple concepts, and one concept can have multiple words that describe it. In Part 2: Context and Semantic Range, he explains that "both a knowledge of semantic range (how a word is used elsewhere) and context are key to determining meaning," and "etymology can be helpful but should only be used as a last resort in determining meaning."
Lee, John A. L. A History of New Testament Lexicography
Lee's work provides a behind-the-scenes look at the history of New Testament lexicon writing.
Silva, Mois├ęs. Biblical Words and their Meaning
Silva's book is a helpful introduction to the concept of lexical semantics—the branch of linguistics that has to do with words and "how" they mean—geared toward the student of biblical languages. You can find a PowerPoint summarizing the book here.

BDAG and Louw-Nida Greek-English Lexicons

While no lexicon is perfect, BDAG and Louw-Nida are widely recognized as being two standard lexicons for the Greek New Testament. Below you will find resources that relate to these two works in order to help you to understand why--and how--you should use them.

Resources Related to BDAG

Bauer/Danker's BDAG Greek-English Lexicon
This is the third edition, and is often considered the standard for the study of New Testament Greek. For reviews, see Rodney Decker's post here.
Varner's Introduction to the Use of BDAG
William Varner of the Master's Seminary is a guest on Daily Dose of Greek to show viewers how to use BDAG. See also Part 2 and Part 3.
Decker's Introduction to Using BDAG
The late Rod Decker gives a brief introduction to the history of Greek lexicons in the English language, and then introduces the reader to how to use BDAG.

Resources Related to Louw-Nida

Plummer, Rob. Greek Lexicons-Louw & Nida
Dr. Plummer explains what makes the Louw-Nida lexicon unique.
How to Use Louw-Nida's Greek-English Lexicon in Logos
This youtube video gives a brief introduction to Louw and Nida's Greek-English Lexicon in the Logos format.

Online Lexicons and Dictionaries

Greek Lexical Parser
This searchable Greek/Hebrew parser is featured on Biola’s The Unbound Bible page. It allows users to search on the Greek word or root, and it interacts with Biola’s MultiLex Biblical Lexicon.
Kata Biblon Lexicon
Kata Biblon is an open source lexicon. It has (1) glosses and some extended definitions, (2) inflectional charts showing the various forms, and (3) all the actual forms found in the GNT and the LXX. A very helpful resource!
Liddell-Scott Greek-English Lexicon
Use Thesaurus Linguae Graecae' search engine to find entries on Greek words in Liddell-Scott.
MultiLex Biblical Lexicon
This searchable Greek/Hebrew lexicon is featured on Biola’s The Unbound Bible page.
S. C. Woodhouse's English-Greek Dictionary
The University of Chicago Library makes this classical Greek dictionary available online here. Enter the English word, press enter, and be directed to a digital image of Woodhouse's text.  
Strong’s Lexicon
This searchable Greek/Hebrew lexicon is featured on Biola’s The Unbound Bible page.
Teknia Greek Dictionary
This is an expanding Greek dictionary that allows students to select entries alphabetically (on the left of the page) and search for words based on their Strong’s number, GK number, or transliteration.
The Bible Tool
This is an online, searchable Bible database created by CrossWire Bible Society, SBL, and the American Bible Society. Users can search for Greek words in a number of resources (located on the left side of the page).
Thesaurus Linguae Graecae
"Since its inception the project has collected and digitized most texts written in Greek from Homer (8 c. B.C.) to the fall of Byzantium in AD 1453. Its goal is to create a comprehensive digital library of Greek literature from antiquity to the present era."

While some of their resources require a paid subscription to access, others such as the Online Liddell-Scott-Jones Greek-English Lexicon are available for free. You will have to create an account to use it long-term, but it is free and worth it to access the tools. Even with a free account you can do things like search for a particular word in a particular tense and print all occurrences in the limited corpus (see here for instructions for using the site).

NOTE: Since SEBTS has a paid account with TLG, SEBTS students can access the larger corpus if they access TLG through the library database page and then enter their individual TLG free account info.
Tyndale House's "2LetterLookup"
This wonderful resource allows you to type in the first letters of the word you are trying to look up by clicking on the letters in the sidebar. It then links you to various lexical resources. It allows you to look up words in Greek, Hebrew or Aramaic, Latin, Syriac, Coptic, Akkadian, and Arabic.

Books & Other Manuscripts

Abbott-Smith's Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament
This is available at Archive in a number of different formats. Even though it is older, it was published after the discovery of the papyri, so it is still a useful resource.
Bullinger's Critical Lexicon and Concordance
This is the complete text of E.W. Bullinger's A Critical Lexicon and Concordance to the English and Greek New Testament. It is available in multiple formats.
Moulton/Milligan's Vocabulary of the Greek Testament
This classic work emphasizes the uses of Greek words in papyri and other non-literary works.
Souter's A Pocket Lexicon to the Greek New Testament
This is an early 20th century New Testament Greek lexicon written by Alexander Souter (PDF format).
Thayer's Greek-English Lexicon
This is actually an enlargement of Grimm Wilke's Clavis Novi Testamenti. It is available for download in multiple formats. It's been a standard work for several generations of Bible students, though see Rod Decker's critique of its weaknesses in pages 4-6 of his Intro to Using BDAG.
Trenchard, Warren C. A Concise Dictionary of New Testament Greek
This is dictionary, for sale at Amazon.com, attempts to serve as a middle ground between a simple vocabulary guide and a fully exhaustive lexicon. As one reviewer has said, it is "up to date and full of detailed lexical information, yet, in accordance with its title, remains concise and succinct."
Veitch's Greek Verbs: Irregular and Defective
This is a Classical Greek dictionary for verbs available on Internet Archive in a number of formats.  
Yonge's An English-Greek Lexicon
This copy of C. D. Yonge's lexicon is available via Google Books for viewing and full download. It may also be viewed on Internet Archive here in multiple formats. Note that this is an English to Greek lexicon, so you can go here to see how to translate English into Greek.